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2022-08-20
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OHSAS18000 occupational safety and health management system standard introduction

ohsas development history

I Developed countries in the world have established their own standards

in 1996, the United Kingdom issued bs8800 "guidelines for occupational safety and health management system"

in 1996, the United States industrial health agreement formulated the guiding document of "occupational safety and health management system"

in 1997, Australia/New Zealand proposed the draft "general guidelines for principles, systems and supporting technologies of occupational safety and health management system"

Japan industrial safety and health agreement (Jisha) Put forward the guidelines for occupational safety and health management system

det Norske Veritas (DNV) formulated the certification standard for occupational safety and health management system

in 1999, 13 organizations such as British Standards Institute (BSI) and det Norske Veritas (DNV) proposed the OHSAS standard, namely OHSAS18001 occupational safety and health management system - Specification OHSAS18002 occupational safety and health management system -- OHSAS18001 implementation guide

in October 1999, the State Economic and Trade Commission of China issued the trial standard for occupational safety and health management system (the content is basically consistent with OHSAS18000)

II. The internationalization of OHSAS:

ISO/TC176 -- 87 issued ISO9000 standard

ISO/TC207 -- 96 issued ISO14000 Standard

ISO organization has been working hard to internationalize occupational safety and health standards since the mid and late 1990s

held a special meeting from September 5 to 6, 1996, 44 countries and 6 international organizations including IEC, ILO and who participated, but no agreement was reached

in January, 1997, a technical working committee (TMB) meeting was held, which decided not to issue international standards for occupational safety and health for the time being

therefore, at present, there is no international standard for occupational safety and health, and organizations can choose the corresponding standards for implementation and certification

Third, why occupational safety and health

1. The requirements of international trade

all countries in the world need to hope to participate in competition at the same cost. Developed countries pay special attention to the use of cheap child labor in third world countries, the vicious production environment, and low-cost products produced under separated factories, thus making competition unequal

2. The need to reduce industrial accidents and occupational diseases

3. Occupational safety and health is mainly to solve the problem of human rights

ohsas development prospects

I. The idea of the integration of occupational safety and health standards

1. The requirements of the Uruguay Round negotiation agreement of the general agreement on Tariffs and trade (GATT) "countries should not cause non-tariff trade barriers and unfair trade due to differences in regulations and standards, and should try to adopt international standards"

2. Consistent with the ISO9000 and ISO14000 models, it is easy to evaluate

2. The conditions for the development of occupational safety and health in China

1. With many years of experience in safety management systems, all enterprises have corresponding policies, objectives and various safety systems

2. Most enterprises have the operation experience of ISO9000 and ISO14000 management systems

3. China's new safety regulations have been issued, For example, the occupational safety and health law or production safety law has prepared a solid foundation for the implementation of OHSAS

4. China has a large number of occupational safety and health scientific research and testing institutions and professional technicians, who can undertake the technical evaluation of OHSAS

III. The role of occupational safety and health management system

1. The implementation of OHSAS can significantly improve the management level and management efficiency of enterprise safety production

2. Improve working conditions, improve the physical and mental health of workers, and improve labor efficiency

3. Occupational accidents and diseases can increase property losses and medical compensation costs, increase costs

4, and enhance the social influence of enterprises, Expand the market

OHSAS operation mode

PDCA is the operation basis of the occupational safety and health management system:

PDCA cycle is the operation basis of OHSAS18000 occupational safety and health management system, as well as the operation basis of ISO14000 and ISO9000 management systems. In fact, PDCA cycle is the fundamental operation mode of all modern management systems

P -- Plan: 1. Determine the organization's policies and objectives

2. Equip necessary resources

3 Establish an organization, specify corresponding responsibilities, authorities and interrelationships

different materials need different fixtures

4, identify relevant activities or processes of the operation of the management system, and specify the implementation procedures and operation methods of activities or processes

d-- action: implement according to the procedures specified in the plan (such as organizational procedures and operation methods). The compliance of the implementation process with the plan and the implementation results determine whether the organization can achieve the expected goals, so ensuring that all activities are carried out in a controlled state is the key to implementation

c-- inspection: in order to ensure the effective implementation of the plan, it is necessary to check and measure the implementation effect of the plan, and take measures to correct and eliminate possible behavioral deviations

a-- improvement: management sincerely welcomes you. The caller consultation process is not a closed system. Therefore, with the deepening of management activities, we need to constantly adjust management activities and improve the next dynamic cycle and rising spiral of the judgment model in view of the defects and deficiencies found in practice and the changing internal and external conditions

ohsas terms and definitions (17 terms in total)

I. accidents:

-- causing death, occupational disease Accidents injuring property losses or other losses

corresponding regulations:

-- provisions on the reporting and handling of casualty accidents of enterprise employees issued by the State Council in 1991

-- provisions on the scope of occupational diseases and the handling methods of patients with occupational diseases issued in 1987

-- Administrative Measures for the diagnosis of occupational diseases issued by the Ministry of health

II. Review:

-- whether the formulation activities and relevant results comply with the planned arrangements, And whether these arrangements have been effectively implemented and applied to a systematic verification process to achieve the organization's policies and objectives

III. continuous improvement:

-- the process of strengthening the occupational safety and health management system, with the purpose of improving the occupational safety and health performance in general according to the organization's occupational safety and health policy

- continuous improvement does not have to occur in all aspects of the activity

IV. hazards:

-- possible causes or conditions of personal injury, occupational disease, property loss, working environment, damage

can be understood as hazard source or accident hidden danger

-- in essence, it refers to the accidental release or leakage of harmful substances caused by the loss of control of energy, harmful substances and energy, and harmful substances, and the emission of these two factors, such as liquefiers, oxygen cylinders

according to which accidents Classification of direct causes of hazards:

physical

chemical

biological

psychological and subjective

physiological

behavioral

other

fifth, danger:

-- a combination of the possibility and consequences of a certain dangerous event

possibility: refers to the difficulty of causing the accident

severity: refers to how much casualties or property losses can be caused by the organization after the accident

if any of them does not exist, it is considered that this danger does not exist

if there is a possibility of electric shock and personnel cannot enter, it is considered that there is no danger

VI. hazard identification:

-- the process of identifying the existence of hazards and determining their nature

that is, identifying hazard sources

the identification scope mainly includes plant site, plant layout, buildings, production process, production equipment, harmful operations and management facilities, accident emergency rescue facilities and auxiliary production and living health facilities

determine its nature, such as the table (overturning people or fire) determine whether it is a fire or overturning people

VII. Events:

-- events that cause or may cause accidents

the occurrence of the event may cause an accident, or it may not cause any loss. Therefore, the function of the limit switch is to automatically stop the movement of the 10 character when the 10 character head moves to a position that is beyond the normal position. The events include the accident

for no occupational disease, death, injury The event of property loss or other losses can be called "Attempted? Quot;.

events include attempted negligence.

VIII. Related parties:

-- pay attention to the occupational safety and health status of the organization or the individuals or groups affected by it.

can be groups or individuals.

pay attention to the status or affected

related parties mainly include:

1) adjacent to the organization, such as adjacent factories, surrounding residents, downwind enterprises, the downstream of the river, etc.

2) operation with the organization Related to production activities, such as shareholders, suppliers, customers and employees

3) banks, government departments, labor and environmental protection organizations, etc

IX. non conformance:

-- any behavior or deviation that can directly or indirectly cause this part of consumer demand to appear rigid, such as death, occupational disease, property loss or damage to the working environment, in violation of the requirements of operating standards, procedures, rules or management systems

is divided into serious and general nonconformities

serious nonconformities

systematic failure of the system

system regional failure

has serious consequences

X. objectives:

-- occupational safety and health work objectives formulated by the organization to stimulate employees' safety performance behavior and expected to be achieved. Requirements and results

objectives should be decomposed into independent indicators

try to manage quantitative

indicators should be measurable

Xi. Occupational safety and health:

-- affect employees in the workplace Temporary workers

protection of the safety and health of anyone entering the workplace

does not include the protection of other labor rights and labor remuneration of employees, nor does it include general health care and injury medical work

generally speaking, workplaces are places where production activities are organized

XII. Occupational safety and health management system:

-- organize the part of the whole management system that specifically manages occupational safety and health work, including the organization, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources required for the formulation, implementation, realization, review and maintenance of occupational safety and health policies

XIII. Organization:

-- enterprises, institutions or associations with their own functions and administrative management

can be a part of it

XIV. Performance:

-- the achievements and effects of the organization in controlling and eliminating occupational safety and health hazards according to occupational safety and health policies and objectives

performance is measurable, such as the reduction of occupational diseases, no accidents, etc

XV. Hazard evaluation (risk evaluation):

-- the whole process of evaluating the degree of hazard and determining whether it has an acceptable range

is to analyze the possibility and severity of the hazard of the existing hazard source to determine whether this hazard is acceptable

possibility: adopt mathematical methods, and finally get a comprehensive index to realize the severity of

: the judgment of whether it is acceptable to analyze

through engineering methods needs to be determined according to relevant knowledge, such as laws, regulations and the specific situation of the organization. Generally speaking, this standard or limit value is not invariable

XVI. Safety:

-- avoid the injury of unacceptable danger

after risk evaluation, If the unacceptable risk is determined, it should take measures to reduce the unacceptable risk to an acceptable level, so that people can avoid being injured by the unacceptable risk

XVII. Acceptable risks:

-- the organization reduces the risks to an acceptable level according to legal obligations and occupational safety and health

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